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With regard to EU sanctions against Russia, he proposed an "act-on-act system". A gradual lifting of sanctions in exchange for progress in the Ukraine conflict could trigger a "positive momentum".
While the OSCE considered it to be a success that the OSCE observation mission in eastern Ukraine could be extended, there was also criticism on the agenda-setting of his incumbency, which according to Christian Nünlist, was partly based on his personal domestic political interests for Austria.
Already during the chairmanship of Reinhold Mitterlehner , many rumours arose within the media and the party itself, speculating that it would be more and more likely for Kurz to takeover the party before the legislative election and to run as the top candidate of his party in that election.
Following Mitterlehner's withdrawal from politics, the party executive board nominated Kurz as the new chairman on 14 May that year.
However, he declined to succeed Mitterlehner as Vice-Chancellor. Unofficially assented changes were a request of the chairmen to be granted veto powers against federal nominees of state organisations and to obtain the prerogative to appoint federal nominees at their discretion.
On 1 July , Kurz was officially elected chairman of the ÖVP by the Bundesparteitag federal party conference with The second part of the program, presented nine days later, comprised economics, education, research, culture and the environment.
It also aimed to replace compulsory school attendance with "compulsory education". Children shall "be able to comprehensively read and know the basics of math", otherwise compulsory school attendance shall be extended up until the age of In addition, there shall be a mandatory second kindergarten year for children with insufficient knowledge of the German language.
And contributions to the social security system shall be reduced for people with lower incomes. On 27 September , Kurz presented the third part of the election program; "Order and Security".
Anyone arriving illegally shall be returned to their country of origin. If someones requires protection, they shall be harboured in a Protection Center within a third-party country.
It also asked for an improved Punktesystem scoring system for legal immigrants. With regards to government reforms, it wished a more clearly defined separation of responsibilities between the federal government and the state and municipality governments.
It also called for structural reforms within the EU, the implementation of the security compact and tougher punishments for violence against women and incitements.
On 15 October , Kurz and his party emerged as victorious from the legislative election , receiving 1,, votes As the leader of the party with the most seats after the election, Kurz was charged with the formation of a new cabinet by President Alexander Van der Bellen.
Since he did not obtain an absolute majority in parliament, Kurz decided to look out for a coalition partner to ensure one.
The search turned out rather quick and the People's Party entered negotiations with the far-right Freedom Party on 25 October.
Negotiations concluded successfully on 15 December and the incoming coalition presented its ministers list [a] to the President.
Van der Bellen assented and the Kurz cabinet was sworn in on 18 December This subsection is a list of cabinet actions that were primarily driven by Chancellor Sebastian Kurz.
The bonus only affects parents whose children derive child subsidy Kinderbeihilfe from government. The Social Democratic Party strongly criticised the bonus for "being solely of benefit for well-earning people and completely forgetting the less well-earners and unemployed".
In November , the Kurz cabinet completed drafting major changes to the basic income , unemployment insurance and the emergency aid.
While the basic income was initially denoted "minimum grant" Mindestsicherung , it will be renamed "social aid" Sozialhilfe.
The new statute resulting from the changes, will supersede the "federation-states-agreement on minimum standards of social services" which expired in and federalize the basic income through a framework law — which will allow for states to keep their autonomy in making decisions on the basic income, but only within that by the law explicitly defined framework.
Citizens of the European Union , the European Economic Area and foreign countries, only are eligible to apply for the basic income after a legally registered stay of five years or when having served as an employer.
To retain the basic income an application must be re-submitted every year. Furthermore, the changes will merge the unemployment insurance Arbeitslosengeld with the emergency aid Notstandshilfe ; the merger's result will then be called "unemployment insurance NEW" Arbeitslosengeld NEU.
While the prior unemployment insurance was only claimable for one year by the newly unemployed, the new unemployment insurance expands this tenure up to two years.
However, when people's eligibility for the old unemployment insurance expired they could claim the constantly-renewable but less awarding emergency aid.
The new unemployment insurance however, eliminated the emergency aid and will thereby cause people to fall directly into the basic income.
The changes passed the Council of Ministers in March and were subsequently enacted by the National Council. The federal-level framework law is in effect since April , states now have time to implement the law until June Cabinet skipped the common assessment process Begutachtungsprozess for the amendment.
The average work time in Austria was eight hours per day, the amendment extended the maximum work time of ten hours per day to twelve hours, and the fifty hours work time per week to sixty hours.
Chancellor Kurz and his cabinet commented the changes with "legally allowing employees to work more a day on a voluntary basis.
In theory, employees could legally decline an employer's request to work longer. Prior to the amendment it has only been possible to work longer than ten hours per day in certain circumstances and with the explicit assent of the works council.
Supporters of these changes have been the Economic Chamber and the Federation of Industries. Opponents have raised strong concerns regarding the amendment, doubting that an appliance of the "voluntary basis" is actually possible in practice — since they expect the employer to dismiss a denial of the employee to work longer and threaten them with suspension and discharge.
Compulsory German language classes On 16 May , the Kurz cabinet enacted compulsory German language classes in the National Council.
As of 1 January , all primary Volksschule and secondary schools Hauptschule , Gymnasium are legally required to establish mandatory German language classes which deviate from regular classes for children with a lacking knowledge of the German language — denoted "extraordinary students".
Such classes are however, only established when there is a minimum of eight such pupils per school. Extraordinary students are determined by a nationwide test administered by the principal when signing up for a school, or when having entered school during a school year and being new to Austria.
When tests do conclude an "insufficient" knowledge of the German language, pupils are obliged to attend German language classes for fifteen hours per week in primary schools and twenty hours per week in secondary schools.
Extraordinary students will remain in these classes until a maximum tenure of four semesters or when having at least improved their skills to an "inadequate" knowledge of the German language — their language level will be examined every semester through a ministerial test.
Such students will attend view joint subjects, such as drawing, music, gymnastics and handicraft, with their original regular class.
The new law replaced a previous act, which allowed pupils to voluntarily attend German language classes for eleven hours per week.
Cabinet argued that the previous law was not effective enough and did not achieve the desired results.
The new initiative faced great opposition by schools, their representatives and the opposition parties. Opponents argued that yet alone the Viennese schools would require additional rooms.
Furthermore, extraordinary students may face discrimination, many teachers do not have the necessary requirements, costs for the implementation are gigantic and all extraordinary students are in the same class regardless of their age, which prevents them from learning efficiently.
Family subsidy for European foreigners In October , the Kurz cabinet amended the family subsidy for European foreigners through legislation, the changes will be in effect as of 1 January The amendment affects foreign citizens of the European Union which work within Austria but whose children reside outside of Austria.
The changes adjust family subsidy obtained by these children to the local price level of their country of residence. The amendment especially pertains workers of the social and civil sector, such as nurses.
The European Commission admonished the cabinet of amending family subsidy for European foreigners, since Union Law states that "equal contributions to the system, must be paid out with equal services".
The commission considers to sue Austria at the European Court of Justice as soon as the amendment turns into effect. Monitoring compact In April , the coalition enacted the "monitoring compact", officially titled "security compact".
The People's Party already attempted to pass such a law in the previous legislative period, but failed since their bill presented before the National Council was rejected by all other parties, including their current and former coalition partner.
The compact allows for authorities to monitor messenger services such as WhatsApp and Skype of a person; that has committed a crime punishable with a maximum of ten years imprisonment, or five years when life and sexual integrity are endangered, or is suspected of being a potential terrorist.
With the new compact, authorities will be empowered to order telecommunication companies to save a person's data up to one year if they are suspected of committing a specific crime.
Should the initial suspicion not be substantiated throughout the investigation, then authorities' directive to store data will turn void and the surveillance target must be informed of their investigation.
Furthermore, the optical and acoustic surveillance in the public are also planned to be expanded, therefore authorities will be able to access the video and audio surveillance of government operated or funded organisations such as public transportation services, airports and railway stations , who are obliged to store recordings for a tenure of four weeks.
The "license plate recognition systems" Kennzeichenerkennungssysteme are also intended to be advanced, with them being able to detect the driver, license plate, type and color of any car.
IMSI-catchers used by the police will be able to localise phones without contacting the respective telecommunication company. Anonymous prepaid cards will no longer be available and only sim cards will remain, which require one to register their identity.
The compact will stand for five years and will be evaluated after three years. Jurists, attorneys, the Constitutional Service and many others, have expressed their strong concerns regarding the compact and have accused it of infringing the very basis of liberty.
Both, the Social Democratic Party and the NEOS , have announced to file one-third petitions in Parliament to trigger a lawsuit against the compact before the Constitutional Court — the Social Democratic Party will introduce its petition in the Federal Council , where it already possesses one-thirds of the seats, NEOS will introduce theirs in the National Council and hopes for the support of the Social Democratic Party to derive the remaining votes necessary.
While both are generally the same, the mobile app was labeled "more comfortable" by cabinet. The concept for both platform was drafted by Margarete Schramböck , Minister of Digital Affairs, and subsequently developed by her ministry.
Digitalizing government services and bureaucracy has been an election promise of Kurz. The services data.
The digital driving license will for the moment only be usable domestically, since there are no European-wide regulations for such licenses.
Registering for those platforms requires a mobile signature. There currently are more than 1,1 million registered mobile signatures.
EU council presidency When Austria held the rotating EU presidency from July to December , Kurz advocated for a better protection of the schengen border and suggested that Frontex border guards should prevent migrant-boats from coming to Europe.
Fusion of social insurances On 13 December the Kurz cabinet enacted an amendment to the social insurance law. The amendment was intended to reform the organisation and structure of Austria's social insurance system, mainly through fusion and with discharging "redundant functionaries" as well as modernizing workplaces.
The cabinet stated that "centralizing the social insurance system will improve services for the insured". In addition the Association of Austrian Social Insurances Hauptverband der österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger , which comprises all social insurance organisations, will be reduced and disempowered when the amendment is in effect.
The project will officially begin in April with the initiation of a parliamentary transitional committee overseeing the fusion.
The committee will be abolished at the end of and starting the new organisation and structure will be in full effect.
The opposition consisting of SPÖ , NEOS and NOW , the chairman of the Association of Austrian Social Insurances and multiple health economists have condemned these changes, saying that "they would not centralize but decentralize and impair a perfectly functioning and effective system and thus be a general worsening for the insured".
The fusion will cost government approximately to million Euros. On 17 May , a political scandal known as the Ibiza affair was made public.
The scandal involved Heinz-Christian Strache , Vice Chancellor and Freedom Party chairman, and Johann Gudenus , a Freedom Party deputy chair, asking for highly controversial electoral support from the mysterious woman who claimed to be the niece of Russian oligarch Igor Makarov.
A day after the scandal, Strache announced his withdrawal from all political posts, but wished for the Kurz cabinet to remain in office.
He also stated that he had requested President Alexander Van der Bellen to summon a snap election.
The following day, speculations emerged that Kurz planned to propose the dismissal of Interior Minister Herbert Kickl. As a result, all Freedom Party ministers threatened that they would resign if Kurz actually did so.
Kickl was already among the most controversial figures of the Freedom Party before the Ibiza affair and would, as interior minister, have headed the investigation into the scandal and therefore have prosecuted the former head of his own party.
The vacated ministerial posts were filled by experts. Due to the end of the coalition and the dismissal of Kickl, Kurz lost his majority in Parliament and soon had to face a motion of no confidence.
In September , the People's Party won the legislative election in a landslide, receiving 1,, votes and It is the second consecutive election that the People's Party emerged as the clear winner.
As a result of the election, Kurz was again tasked with the formation of a new cabinet by President Alexander Van der Bellen on 7 October.
At the end of December it was reported that coalition negations had concluded successfully. The program for the new cabinet was introduced to the general public on 2 January Kurz was sworn in as Chancellor by President Van der Bellen on 7 January at eleven o'clock ante meridiem CET , after having taken the oath of office Amtseid during the inauguration ceremony Angelobung and after having countersigned the swearing-in certificate Bestallungsurkunde.
The coalition deal also includes banning the headscarf in schools for girls up to age 14, an extension of the garment ban that applies until age 10 approved by lawmakers earlier this year.
Following Kurz's first official visit to Berlin , the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung found him "highly eloquent", "succinct" and "everything but sheepish", and even quoted those calling him the "young Metternich ".
Anna von Bayern of the Focus magazine wrote "one truly notices the new self-confidence of the Foreign Ministry , Kurz endowed it with new relevance".
Vienna had become a "place of dialogue", first with the Ukraine summit in and later with the negotiations on the nuclear deal with Iran.
In autumn , the Syria discussions began in Vienna. However, his substantive differences with his right-wing populist competitors were said to be only "marginal".
The "statesman of the new kind" has found a way to deal with the refugee crisis. The "pragmatic way" worked out and was adopted by other European politicians.
The closure of the Balkan route had been a diplomatic feat. He was "sovereign, also sympathetic towards critics, and a master of the German language.
If Kurz was German, he would be Chancellor , or right before becoming Chancellor". This was because Kurz led a "foreigner election campaign", reducing problems to the topic of immigration, and would play the "strict law guardian".
However, Frey also saw some grounds for tendencies supporting Kurz, saying that he was an "effective answer" to populists like " Haider , Strache and Co".
Kurz would elaborate the majority opinion that immigration would have to be more strictly regulated, "without hounding and polemics".
Kurz was a "natural talent in decision-making" with "high social and analytical capabilities". This question would currently be "unanswerable".
A hypothetical Chancellor Kurz would "split the country like no other head of government before". The Rheinische Post wrote: "If we look directly at his supporters, Kurz strongly resembles Jörg Haider, the legendary right-wing populist, who about 30 years ago set out to destroy the eternal red-black proportional system — and ultimately failed.
What changes Kurz strives for, was not clarified during his election campaign. The only thing truly clear, is that he wants to become Austria's youngest Chancellor.
Therefore even calling for the installation of a Richtlinienkompetenz after the German example, in which ministers would be subordinated to the Chancellor".
In June , a commentary of Edward Lucas published by the Financial Times drew parallels with the current political development of Europe and the United States with the situation in the s.
Kurz was said to be easily comparable with the Republican U. The jury chose the word because "Kurz avoids reacting to topics which are unpleasant for him, he also avoids commenting on actions and statements by members of the FPÖ, where the general public expects a clarification from the Chancellor".
Spiegel Online ranked Kurz first in its ranking "Who will be important abroad in ? Seen internationally, it said the ÖVP politician had attracted considerable attention since he was "only 32 years old and rules with right-wing populists".
Furthermore, the magazine said that "his right-wing populist coalition partner, the FPÖ, has pushed the boundaries of the word. In future, the tone against foreigners, refugees and migrants is likely to intensify further, because Kurz lets his coalition partner say bad things, but remains silent himself.
Meanwhile, his popularity remains high". Same-sex marriage A decision of the Constitutional Court on 4 December abolished most of the Registered Partnership Law and legalized same-sex marriage in Austria , effective 1 January Both the People's Party and the Freedom Party opposed same-sex marriage and rejected several bills proposed by the Social Democratic Party , the NEOS and the Greens that would have legalized it before the court ruling.
Kurz also opposed same-sex marriage and argued that discrimination has already been abolished with the legalisation of registered partnerships , stating: "There already is the opportunity for partnering, there is the possibility for homosexual couples to adopt children [—] therefore, discrimination has already been eliminated".
Foreign policy As foreign minister, Kurz campaigned for dismantling and discarding all nuclear weapons on the globe, clarifying: "Nuclear weapons are not only a permanent threat to all of humanity, but also a heritage of the Cold War , that must be resolutely overcome.
Download here. This snapshot considers the path forward for Dutch defense planning. While the Netherlands has a relatively small defense budget, wise investment in innovation for the future will allow these funds to go a long way in preparing for coming developments in warfare, especially as the coronavirus crisis highlights the need for better governmental budgeting.
In particular, it is necessary to anticipate the rising importance of the cyber and hybrid-warfare domains and increase capabilities in these areas.
This requires research, testing, and implementation of new technologies with collaboration across the different parts of the Dutch military forces, as well as a rethinking of the nature of military tasks and aims.
New Strategic Alert! The economic relevance of space is substantive and growing. A study found that These services are of critical importance to the functioning of the inter national economy.
Positioning, timing, and navigation PNT , communications, and Earth observation services form the backbone of many essential processes, such as fleet management or bank transactions.
Several strategic processes, from the execution of beyond line of sight BLOS operations to nuclear deterrence, are dependent on satellites.
In the long term, space is also likely to play a role in the global energy transition. For example, the rare earth elements REEs contained in celestial bodies are in increasingly limited supply on Earth and are required for many renewable technologies.
As interstate competition heats up, an increasing number of states — more than 80 in , compared to 50 in — have launched satellites into orbit.
This, along with reductions in the cost of launching payloads, introduces both threats and opportunities from the Dutch perspective.
Badly managed initiatives could see an intensification of interstate competition and the deterioration of public services.
Responsibility for the contents and for the opinions expressed, rests solely with the authors and does not constitute, nor should be construed as, an endorsement by the Netherlands Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Defence.
New policy brief out now! This policy brief discusses the methodology for assessing the impact of the lifestory approach on preventing and countering violent extremism.
It recommends a mixed-methods approach of qualitative and quantitative elements including interviews, ethnographic observations, questionnaires, and project activities reception.
Using these methods to explore the impact of the lifestories on violent extremists, directly affected individuals, and practitioners will provide valuable insight into the effectiveness of the approach in reducing extremist views and preventing radicalization.
Download the brief here , or by clicking the PDF button on the right. New report out now! Lifestory videos, which are the personal stories of affected individuals, can be very persuasive in changing attitudes and thus reducing violent extremist sentiments.
However, it is important to be able to gauge how effective lifestories have been as an approach to reducing extremism in a community.
Therefore, this report lays out a methodology for assessing the success of lifestories in countering and preventing violent extremism.
Importantly, the lifestory campaign must be designed with measurable outcomes in mind, and so a pre- and post-story interview discussing the impact with the participant is a useful tool.
The paper also recommends a mixed-methods approach that includes quantitative and qualitative research in the form of interviews, ethnographic observations, questionnaires, and project activities reception.
Download the report here , or by clicking the PDF button on the right. This report lays out guidelines for creating lifestory videos to assist in producing high-quality, consistent media with a coherent message.
The audiovisual format of lifestories can be highly informative as well as persuasive, which makes them an effective tool in preventing and countering violent extremism.
Audio-visuals have already been used in a number of campaigns around the world, with varying degrees of success. This paper analyzes these previous efforts and considers which elements worked well as a way to inform lifestory design.
It concludes that the authentic emotional qualities of lifestories are crucial for combatting disinformation and deep fakes and for offering counter narratives to propaganda.
Directions for the technical aspects of creating these videos is offered as well, with an emphasis on how to maintain credibility and anonymity.
Download the report here , or by clicking the PDF button to the right. This policy brief discusses how to design strategic communications campaigns to prevent and counter violent extremism using lifestory narratives.
It focuses on the most effective choices to make when producing and disseminating lifestories in regard to audience, goals, medi a , and typology.
It recommends treating the whole society as the audience, aiming to reduce tensions in the community by addressing extremist and stigmatizing attitudes, sharing the lifestories off- and online, and carefully selecting the narrative type of the stories shown.
Lifestory narratives can be a highly effective tool in efforts to prevent and counter violent extremism. These narratives are authentic personal stories told by those whose lives have been touched by extremism, and through sharing them it is possible to promote understanding and empathy among different members of the affected community, thus building resilience and preventing radicalization.
However, in order to develop appropriate lifestory narratives, researchers must keep in mind several key elements of design.
First, the stories should be prepared for an intended audience of radicalized individuals, vulnerable individuals, and practitioners. The goals of sharing these stories should be to change public perceptions about vulnerable and radicalized individuals, decrease violent extremist views, prevent radicalization, decrease stigmatization, and support reintegration.
There must also be a dissemination strategy for sharing the stories on appropriate media with good timing, with a combination of online and offline messaging.
Furthermore, lifestory narratives should not run counter to government policies on preventing and countering violent extremism.
Finally, researchers should keep in mind that lifestories may offer four different types of narratives: resilient, alternative, counter, and destigmatization.
The last two may be counterproductive and exacerbate tensions rather than reduce them, so it is recommended to use mainly resilient and alternative narrative messaging instead.
New snapshot by assistant analyst Marek Baron out now! There have been significant developments in the field of conflict prediction methods, with many new tools and models available for researchers.
However, the effectiveness of these methods and their potential utility in real-world applications still needs to be tested.
Many traditional early warning tools are broad, looking at only national or international trends, which makes them unsuitable for intranational issues.
Infrequent updates to these tools also reduce their usefulness. Therefore, newer methods and models must be considered.
This snapshot examines novel early warning efforts in Mali, which has experienced significant conflict for nearly a decade.
It surveys several quantitative tools that originate from the fields of machine learning, statistical inference, and automated event databases and analyzes their effectiveness in predicting violence in the specific context of the Malian crisis.
The paper also considers limitations in the accessibility and financial viability of these methods to explore whether they are viable options for practitioners in Mali to employ in ongoing violence reduction efforts.
Download the snapshot here. This policy brief outlines some of the challenges researchers face in the field when working to counter and prevent non violent extremism.
It focuses on five problematic areas: accessing the targeted communities, security risks, politicization of violent extremism, collaboration with local and international actors, and work-life balance and trauma.
It offers suggestions for mitigating these risks. While most EU member states have achieved a reduction in carbon emissions, the Netherlands has seen an increase from levels.
Despite pledging to reduce its carbon footprint, the country continues to have a heavy reliance on coal to support the high energy needs of its growing population.
In order to reduce the environmental impact of coal usage, novel approaches to coal byproducts may offer cleaner solutions for generating power.